Incessantly engaged in actions without any attachment and biases, above all kinds of desires, lust, envy and malice, without expectations of fruits thereof (selflessly engaged) in deeds (thinking of duties as assigned, roles and responsibilities) – such acts are said to be Satwik, for sure.
Actions done to quench desires and greed, repeatedly enacted to maintain prestige and ego, performed with extreme difficulties and physical efforts such acts are illustrated as Rajasik.
Note that the focus here is return in kind, to fulfil desires, ego and selfish gratification, not to harm others.
Breach of contracts and trust, violent and inconsiderate to inflict harm to others and demonstrating such valour (in such abysmal acts), actions initiated out of attachments, such acts are said to be Tamasik.
Evil intent to harm others, breaking the law, cheating, manipulating others for personal gains and blinded by attachments and partisan are symptoms of tamasik. At times under such influence, we tend to justify undoable as doable. Objectivity and ethical virtues find no room in thoughts and acts of tamasik. In fact, some even try to befriend those in power and abuse the powerless righteous beings. ‘Groupthink’ multiplies such follies, resulting in mass corruption of thoughts. Media, to beat the race for TRP fuels it further, selling one-sided stories or half-truths. Power holders misusing power to take revenge on opposition are the examples of tamasik characters.
Tamasik take undue advantage of people’s needs. For example organ mafias trap innocent poor for organ donation, promising skies to them, but in the end they get nothing while mediators make hefty profits. Such trade deals are tamasik and it has been banned in most countries. However, assuming that every donor and recipient is mafia, would be escalation of governance. Acts of organ trafficking mafias, cannot be generalized. There are many recipient who die due to unavailability of organs within families. Laws allows organ donations from siblings, but they grow older together catching decease and getting rejected, especially when most educated families now have just one sibling. In such scenarios, laws related to unrelated organ donations should be simplified as currently only the affluent, and VIPs avail this facility, while common man suffers. Most Hospitals do not entertain such transplants. Verified NGOs should be allowed to collect information of matching donors and recipients through all sorts of communication channel and media. Sometimes laws and policies can be lopsided as well, given the bounded rationality of humans. There are no absolute ethics attached to the absolute acts. They are often contextual. Going by Five factor theory of actions (chapter 18), every act in certain situation would be satwik, rajasik or tamasic. Distinction of criminal or pious intent in organ donation needs to be established.. Return in kind also cannot be considered as trade and criminal evidence. When kids go for the Birthday parties, they comeback with a return gift. This gesture is appreciated. Return from wedding is often coupled with Thanks-token. A person working hard by mind or body is paid a salary, this gesture is also upheld. But when a person donates organs, the return in kind is considered illegal trade? Although returns for organ donation cannot be demanded, but a humane gesture deserves to be rewarded, and it is in practice in many other situations. Law presumes, “'Let a hundred guilty be acquitted, but one innocent should not be convicted', but it does not hold true in case of organ donation. Many innocents lose their life, in order to restrain few mafias. Just think!